10 Things You Need to Know about Deploying Windows Vista
 

در این بخش 10 تغییر مهم VISTA را نسبت به سیستم های قبلی مانند 2000 , XP را معرقی می کنیم .

1. Windows Vista Images Are Bigger

در WINDOWS 2000 , XP حجم CD شما بیش از 700MB  نمی شد اما در VISTA حجم آن بین 1 تا 3GB شده و نیاز به DVD می باشد و یا چند CD .

بعد از نصب WINDOWS VISTA حداقل 6GB از فضای دیسک را می گیرد بعد ار نصب برنامه ها این مقدار به 10GB می رسد . که این یکی از تغییرات

مهم می باشد .

2. Security Is Enhanced

در VISTA  هر Account وقتی Logon می شود دارای دسترسی Administrator  نمی باشد حتی Admin Account ها .

در windows XP اگر توسط یک User معمولی یک برنامه که نیاز به دسترسی Full Access به درایو C و یا Registry داشت را Run می کردیم به مشکل

برمی خوردیم چون User معمولی حق Write  بر برخی از آدرسهای C و یا Registry نداشته و ایجاد مشکل می شد. این مشکل دیگر در VISTA

وجود ندارد . در WINDOWS VISTA زمانی که شما می خواهید در آدرسهایی که اجازه Write ندارید اطلاعاتی را تغییر دهید و یا اضافه کنید یکجور

عمل Map شدن وجود دارد یعنی اینکه بجای اینکه اطلاعات برای مثال بر روی Program Files کپی شود بر روی یک آدرس به همین نام بر روی Profile

آن User کپی می شود تا مشکلی رخ ندهد

دومین تغییر بزرگاین می باشد  که Non-Administrator User  می تواند Driver های سیستم را Load کند و یا Device جدید می تواند به سیستم

اضافه کرده و Driver آن را نصب کند البته برای این مورد Policy جدیدی نیز اضافه شده .

تغییر بعدی اجازه نصب Automatic ActiveX بر روی IE می باشد که برای User های معمولی انجام می شود البته اگر Administrator توسط Policy

اجازه آن را داده باشد .

حذف Power Users از VISTA تغییر عمده ای می باشد و استفاده از دو نوع Standard Users , Administrator User می باشد و آمدن سرویس جدیدی

بنام UAC User Account Control می باشد .برای اطلاعات بیشتر درمورد UAC به بخش PART1 مراجعه کنید و یا بر روی لینک زیر کلیک کنید .

توانایی جدید و بسیار مهم در Windows VISTA امکان محدود کردن ترافیک شبکه در حالت Inbound,  outbound می باشد که توسط GPO امکان پذیر

می باشد و بسیار می تواند به امنیت سیستم کمک کند .این مورد به Windows Firewall اضافه شده .

در آخر می توان از BitLocker نام برد که به VISTA اضافه شده .توانایی Encrypt کردن Volume های سیستم می تواند عملا از دسترسی افراد بیگانه

به Resource های سیستم جلوگیری کند .

3. Windows Vista Is Componentized

One of the biggest architectural changes in Windows Vista is that it is now a completely componentized operating system. This affects deployment in the following ways.

Configuring which Windows Vista features should be installed requires configuring the components to be enabled. New tools, like the Windows System Image Manager, shown in Figure 1, assist with this.

Security updates, language packs, and service packs are simply components. Tools such as Package Manager (PKGMGR) can be used to apply these to Windows Vista.

 

   

    Figure 1: Windows System Image Manager

In addition, all servicing can be performed offline or online. You can even apply changes to Windows Vista or a Windows Vista image when Windows Vista is not currently running. This is ideal for deployments: the operating system can be patched before it boots onto your network for the first time.

Drivers are also treated as components, so they can be added and removed easily—even offline. This means you can add drivers to existing images, even just-in-time (as the machine boots for the first time) during the deployment process. And this applies to mass-storage drivers as well; no longer do you need to create a new image just to add a new mass storage driver.

Windows Vista exposes more settings, with most components providing configurable options, so it's easier to set installation defaults that can be managed on an ongoing basis using Group Policy. For a rundown of new tools in Windows Vista, see the sidebar "Tools You Need; Tools to Forget."

Tools You Need; Tools to Forget

Here’s a rundown of the tools you’ll be using when you roll out Windows Vista, followed by a list of the tools you can retire for good once Windows Vista arrives.

USE THESE:
  • SYSPREP This is the updated version, modified for Windows Vista.
  • SETUP A new installation tool for Windows Vista, replaces WINNT and WINNT32.
  • IMAGEX The new command-line tool for creating WIM images.
  • Windows System Image Manager A tool for creating and modifying unattend.xml files.
  • PEIMG The tool for customizing Windows PE 2.0 images.
  • Windows Deployment Services The new version of RIS, which adds the ability to deploy Windows Vista and Windows XP images, as well as Windows PE 2.0 boot images.
  • PNPUTIL This is the new tool for adding and removing drivers from the Windows Vista driver store.
  • PKGMGR Also new, this Windows Vista tool is used for servicing the operating system.
  • OCSETUP This replaces SYSOCMGR and is used for installing Windows components.
  • BCDEDIT A new Windows Vista tool for editing boot configuration data.
  • Application Compatibility Toolkit 5.0 This updated tool lets you assess whether your applications are compatible with Windows Vista.
  • User State Migration Tool 3.0 An updated tool for capturing and restoring user state, supports Windows XP and Windows Vista, as well as all versions of Office including 2007.
  • BitLocker The full-volume drive encryption capability included in Windows Vista Enterprise and Ultimate editions.
FORGET THESE:
  • Remote Installation Services RIS has been replaced by Windows Deployment Services (WDS) but still offers legacy support on Windows Server 2003; RIPREP and RISETUP are not possible with Windows Vista.
  • Setup Manager/Notepad Use Windows System Image Manager instead for editing unattended setup configuration files.
  • WINNT.EXE and WINNT32.EXE Use SETUP instead.
  • SYSOCMGR Replaced by OCSETUP, PKGMGR.
  • MS-DOS Boot Floppies Forget them. Use Windows PE!
 
4. Text-Mode Installation Is Gone

در Windows XP در زمان نصب فرقی با Windows NT نکرده بود و حالت Text Mode برای Install ویندوز وجود داشت در Windows VISTA  این محیط

دیگر وجود ندارد و در عوض آن یک محیط ویندوز برای نصب ایجاد شده .

 
5. Boot.ini Is History

در Windows VISTA و Windows PE 2.0  از Boot.ini دیگر استفاده نمی شود و و از چیز جدیدی بنام BootMgr استفاده می شود .

که اطلاعات آن بر روی فایلهای BCD می باشد. دستور BCDEDIT.EXE برای کار با آن می باشد .دستورات WMI نیز در اینجا برای کار با آن تغییر کرده.

 
6. Settings Are Configured in XML

اطلاعات Configuration برای برنامه ها در Windows های قبلی مانند Windows XP و Windows PE 1 بر روی Text File می باشند .

در Windows VISTA این قایل ها تغییر کرده و به XML تبدیل شده  . Unattend.txt   در VISTA تغییر کرده و به XML تغییر داده شده .

فایلهای زیر نیز تغییر کرده :

  • Sysprep.inf, which was used to configure how a Windows XP image is customized when deployed to a machine using a mini-setup.

  • Wimbom.ini, which was used to configure Windows PE.

  • Cmdlines.txt, which was used to specify a list of commands to execute during mini-setup.

    An example of unattend.xml can be downloaded from TechNet Magazine at microsoft.com/technet/technetmag/code06.aspx.

7. No More HAL Complications

در Windows XP نمی توانستیم از HAL یک سیستم استفاده کرد برای تمامی سیستم های شبکه . در VISTA می توان چندین HAL برای یک سیستم

و یا سیستم ها داشت .

8. Windows PE Rules

Windows PE 2.0, the new version that will be released with Windows Vista, is a key part of the deployment process. Even the standard DVD-based installation of Windows Vista uses Windows PE 2.0, and most organizations will be using it (often customized for the organization's specific needs) as part of their deployment processes.

Compared to MS-DOS®-based deployment, Windows PE 2.0 brings numerous benefits, including less time spent trying to find 16-bit real-mode drivers. (It's not even possible to find these any more for some newer network cards and mass storage adapters.) Better performance from 32-bit and 64-bit networking stacks and tools, as well as large memory support are also advantages. And don't forget support for tools such as Windows Scripting Host, VBScript, and hypertext applications.

Windows PE has been available for a few years (the latest version, Windows PE 2005, was released at the same time as Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 SP1), but not all organizations could use it; it required that you have Software Assurance on your Windows desktop operating system licenses. With Windows PE 2.0, that's no longer the case. All organizations will be able to download Windows PE 2.0 from microsoft.com and use it freely for the purposes of deploying licensed copies of Windows Vista.

Like Windows Vista itself, Windows PE 2.0 is provided as an image that is componentized and can be serviced both online and off. As with Windows PE 2005, several optional components can be added, although Windows PE 2.0 includes some new ones: MSXML 3.0, Windows Recovery Environment, language packs, font packs, and so on. New tools like peimg.exe are provided for servicing Windows PE 2.0. Peimg.exe can also be used for adding drivers—including mass storage devices, which no longer require any special handling.

For more information on Windows PE 2.0, see Wes Miller's article in this issue of TechNet Magazine

 
9. It's All about Images

With Windows XP, some companies used the image creation capabilities of the Systems Management Server (SMS) 2003 OS Deployment Feature Pack or third-party image creation tools. There was no generic image creation tool available from Microsoft. That's changed with Windows Vista: new tools have been created to support the Windows Imaging (WIM) file format. Unlike many other image formats, WIM images are file-based, enabling them to be applied to an existing partition non-destructively. This has great advantages in deployment processes, since user state can be saved locally instead of on a network server, eliminating what is frequently the largest source of network traffic during a deployment.

Because WIM files are file-based images, they (obviously) are not sector-based, so there are no issues around different-sized disks or partitions. A WIM image contains only the contents of a single disk volume or partition, so if you have multiple partitions to capture, you create a separate image for each one. But each of these images can be stored in the same WIM file, since the WIM file format supports multiple images per file.

The WIM file format also supports single-instance storage, so duplicate files (even from different images) are automatically removed. Between this and the advanced compression techniques employed, WIM images are typically smaller than images created by other tools. However, because of the extra processing, they do take longer to create. This size versus performance trade-off is fair enough; since you typically capture the image only once and then deploy it many times, the network traffic savings can be substantial.

The IMAGEX command-line tool interfaces with the lower-level WIMGAPI API (which is fully documented for use in custom tools too), and is used to create and manipulate WIM images. It also provides a mechanism for mounting a WIM image as a file system. Once mounted, the image can be read and modified using standard Windows tools since it looks like a normal removable media drive. This facility opens up whole new servicing opportunities.

 

10. Deployment Is Language-Neutral

Windows XP supported different languages in two ways. You could either deploy localized versions of Windows XP, requiring a different image for each language, or you could deploy an English Multilanguage User Interface (MUI) version with added language packs. There were advantages and disadvantages to each approach, but in most cases organizations that needed to support multiple languages took the MUI route, dealing with the limitations of running with an operating system that was effectively English at its core. Organizations that worked only with one language typically chose to use only the localized versions.

Now with Windows Vista, the entire operating system is language-neutral. One or more language packs are added to this language-neutral core to create the image that is deployed (although only some versions of Windows Vista support multiple languages).

Servicing of Windows Vista is also language-neutral, so in many cases only one security update is needed for all languages. And configuration is language-neutral, so one unattend.xml can be used for all languages.


  Help Is Available

The changes I've described mean that the image creation and deployment processes you've been using for Windows XP will need to be updated. In some cases, these updates might be minor; in others (such as an MS-DOS-based process using cmdlines.txt), significant changes may be required. To help, Microsoft has created new tools, guidance, and step-by-step procedures. These are included in the Solution Accelerator for Business Desktop Deployment (BDD) 2007.

BDD 2007 breaks down the deployment process into more manageable pieces, with different teams managing each component. Guidance, checklists, and tools are provided for each team to help with the tasks they need to perform (see Figure 2).

  

   Figure 2 BDD 2007 Breaks the Deployment Process into More Manageable Tasks

BDD 2007 is currently available for download from connect.microsoft.com after you sign up for the open beta program. Contained in the download are all the required Windows Vista deployment tools, including Windows PE 2.0, ImageX, Windows System Image Manager, and USMT 3.0, along with documentation explaining how to use them in an end-to-end process. The final version of BDD 2007 will be released at about the same time as Windows Vista. For a look at BDDWorkbench, see Figure 3.

    

   Figure 3 BDDWorkbench Helps You Manage Multiple Deployment Scenarios

The goal of BDD 2007 is simplification. Even if you don't have an existing image creation and deployment process, you should be able to use BDD to set one up quickly. Two deployment methods are provided:

  • Lite Touch, which was completely rewritten, requires user interaction to start deployment. It doesn't require any special infrastructure although it can utilize Windows Deployment Services, the next version of Remote Installation Service (RIS).

  • Zero Touch, which requires no user intervention, is layered on top of the SMS 2003 OS Deployment Feature Pack.

The new features in BDD 2007 include driver repository and injection, full computer backup processing, integration of all the Windows Vista deployment tools, and more. BDD 2007 will include all the source code for all of its automation tools, so you can modify it to meet your specific needs or copy and paste it into your own solutions. The source code is provided without restriction.

For more information on BDD 2007, see the TechNet Desktop Deployment center.

 

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10 Things You Need to Know about Deploying Windows Vista

Michael Niehaus Michael Niehaus is a Systems Design Engineer in the Core Infrastructure Solutions group at Microsoft. He is responsible for developing best practices, tools, and scripts for Business Desktop Deployment. Reach him at michael.niehaus@microsoft.com.
 

Last Updated: December 01, 2006

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10 Things You Need to Know about Deploying Windows Vista

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